`Abdu'l-Bahá on Science

(Note: When 'Abdu'l-Baha sailed to America, in 1912, many of the Baha'i friends wanted him to travel in the greatest comfort and attempted to make arrangements for him on the Titanic.  'Abdu'l-Baha, however, declined and expressed his preference to travel on the Cedric instead.  He later referred to the sinking of the Titanic in one of his talks (below), in the context of helping us find comfort and understanding in the face of such a disaster. These talks are examples of some of his comments on science.)

A talk by `Abdu'l-Baha in Paris
Thursday, October 26th, 1911

God's greatest gift to man is that of intellect, or understanding.
     The understanding is the power by which man acquires his knowledge of the several kingdoms of creation, and of various stages of existence, as well as of much which is invisible.
     Possessing this gift, he is, in himself, the sum of earlier creations -- he is able to get into touch with those kingdoms; and by this gift, he can frequently, through his scientific knowledge, reach out with prophetic vision.
     Intellect is, in truth, the most precious gift bestowed upon man by the Divine Bounty.  Man alone, among created beings, has this wonderful power.
     All creation, preceding Man, is bound by the stern law of nature.  The great sun, the multitudes of stars, the oceans and seas, the mountains, the rivers, the trees, and all animals, great or small -- none is able to evade obedience to nature's law.
     Man alone has freedom, and, by his understanding or intellect, has been able to gain control of and adapt some of those natural laws to his own needs.  By the power of his intellect he has discovered means by which he not only traverses great continents in express trains and crosses vast oceans in ships, but, like the fish he travels under water in submarines, and, imitating the birds, he flies through the air in airships.
     Man has succeeded in using electricity in several ways -- for light, for motive power, for sending messages from one end of the earth to the other -- and by electricity he can even hear a voice many miles away!
     By this gift of understanding or intellect he has also been able to use the rays of the sun to picture people and things, and even to capture the form of distant heavenly bodies.
     We perceive in what numerous ways man has been able to bend the powers of nature to his will.
     How grievous it is to see how man has used his God-given gift to frame instruments of war, for breaking the Commandment of God `Thou shalt not kill', and for defying Christ's injunction to `Love one another'.
     God gave this power to man that it might be used for the advancement of civilization, for the good of humanity, to increase love and concord and peace. But man prefers to use this gift to destroy instead of to build, for injustice and oppression, for hatred and discord and devastation, for the destruction of his fellow-creatures, whom Christ has commanded that he should love as himself!
     I hope that you will use your understanding to promote the unity and tranquillity of mankind, to give enlightenment and civilization to the people, to produce love in all around you, and to bring about the universal peace.
     Study the sciences, acquire more and more knowledge. Assuredly one may learn to the end of one's life!  Use your knowledge always for the benefit of others; so may war cease on the face of this beautiful earth, and a glorious edifice of peace and concord be raised.  Strive that your high ideals may be realized in the Kingdom of God on earth, as they will be in Heaven.                                                                         (`Abdu'l-Baha:  Paris Talks*, Pages: 41-43)

    "Religion is the outer expression of the divine reality.  Therefore, it must be living, vitalized, moving and progressive.  If it be without motion and nonprogressive, it is without the divine life; it is dead.  The divine institutes are continuously active and evolutionary; therefore, the revelation of them must be progressive and continuous.  All things are subject to reformation.  This is a century of life and renewal.  Sciences and arts, industry and invention have been reformed.  Law and ethics have been reconstituted, reorganized. The world of thought has been regenerated.  Sciences of former ages and philosophies of the past are useless today.  Present exigencies demand new methods of solution; world problems are without precedent.  Old ideas and modes of thought are fast becoming obsolete.  Ancient laws and archaic ethical systems will not meet the requirements of modern conditions, for this is clearly the century of a new life, the century of the revelation of reality and, therefore, the greatest of all centuries.  Consider how the scientific developments of fifty years have surpassed and eclipsed the knowledge and achievements of all the former ages combined. Would the announcements and theories of ancient astronomers explain our present knowledge of the suns and planetary systems? Would the mask of obscurity which beclouded medieval centuries meet the demand for clear-eyed vision and understanding which characterizes the world today?  Will the despotism of former governments answer the call for freedom which has risen from the heart of humanity in this cycle of illumination?  It is evident that no vital results are now forthcoming from the customs, institutions and standpoints of the past.  In view of this, shall blind imitations of ancestral forms and theological interpretations continue to guide and control the religious life and spiritual development of humanity today?  Shall man, gifted with the power of reason, unthinkingly follow and adhere to dogma, creeds and hereditary beliefs which will not bear the analysis of reason in this century of effulgent reality? Unquestionably this will not satisfy men of science, for when they find premise or conclusion contrary to present standards of proof and without real foundation, they reject that which has been formerly accepted as standard and correct and move forward from new foundations.                                                      (`Abdu'l-Baha:  Promulgation of Universal Peace, Pages: 140-141)

 `Abdu'l-Baha's talk to Bethel Literary Society -- April 23, 1912
Metropolitan African Methodist Episcopal Church
M Street, NW, Washington, D.C.
(Notes by Joseph H. Hannen)

     As I stand here tonight and look upon this assembly, I am reminded curiously of a beautiful bouquet of violets gathered together in varying colors, dark and light.  This is an evidence and indication that the United States of America is a just and free government, for I see black and white seated together in perfect harmony and agreement. Hearts are united.  This just government makes such a meeting possible.  You should thank God continually that you enjoy the security and protection of a government which furthers your development and rules with impartial equity and equality toward all, even as a father; for in the human world there is no greater blessing. This evening I will speak to you upon scientific subjects.
     The virtues of humanity are many, but science is the most noble of them all.  The distinction which man enjoys above and beyond the station of the animal is due to this paramount virtue.  It is a bestowal of God; it is not material; it is divine.  Science is an effulgence of the Sun of Reality, the power of investigating and discovering the verities of the universe, the means by which man finds a pathway to God.  All the powers and attributes of man are human and hereditary in origin -- outcomes of nature's processes -- except the intellect, which is supernatural.  Through intellectual and intelligent inquiry science is the discoverer of all things.  It unites present and past, reveals the history of bygone nations and events, and confers upon man today the essence of all human knowledge and attainment throughout the ages.  By intellectual processes and logical deductions of reason this superpower in man can penetrate the mysteries of the future and anticipate its happenings.
     Science is the first emanation from God toward man.  All created beings embody the potentiality of material perfection, but the power of intellectual investigation and scientific acquisition is a higher virtue specialized to man alone.  Other beings and organisms are deprived of this potentiality and attainment.  God has created or deposited this love of reality in man.  The development and progress of a nation is according to the measure and degree of that nation's scientific attainments.  Through this means its greatness is continually increased, and day by day the welfare and prosperity of its people are assured.
     All blessings are divine in origin, but none can be compared with this power of intellectual investigation and research, which is an eternal gift producing fruits of unending delight.  Man is ever partaking of these fruits.  All other blessings are temporary; this is an everlasting possession.  Even sovereignty has its limitations and overthrow; this is a kingship and dominion which none may usurp or destroy.  Briefly, it is an eternal blessing and divine bestowal, the supreme gift of God to man.  Therefore, you should put forward your most earnest efforts toward the acquisition of science and arts.  The greater your attainment, the higher your standard in the divine purpose.  The man of science is perceiving and endowed with vision, whereas he who is ignorant and neglectful of this development is blind.  The investigating mind is attentive, alive; the callous and indifferent mind is deaf and dead.  A scientific man is a true index and representative of humanity, for through processes of inductive reasoning and research he is informed of all that appertains to humanity, its status, conditions and happenings.  He studies the human body politic, understands social problems and weaves the web and texture of civilization.  In fact, science may be likened to a mirror wherein the infinite forms and images of existing things are revealed and reflected.  It is the very foundation of all individual and national development.  Without this basis of investigation, development is impossible.  Therefore, seek with diligent endeavor the knowledge and attainment of all that lies within the power of this wonderful bestowal.
     We have already stated that science or the attribute of scientific penetration is supernatural and that all other blessings of God are within the boundary of nature.  What is the proof of this?  All created things except man are captives of nature.  The stars and suns swinging through infinite space, all earthly forms of life and existence - whether mineral, vegetable or animal - come under the dominion and control of natural law.  Man through scientific knowledge and power rules nature and utilizes her laws to do his bidding.  According to natural limitations he is a creature of earth, restricted to life upon its surface, but through scientific utilization of material laws he soars in the sky, sails upon the ocean and dives beneath it.  The products of his invention and discovery, so familiar to us in daily life, were once mysteries of nature.  For instance, man has brought electricity out of the plane of the invisible into the plane of the visible, harnessed and imprisoned that mysterious natural agent and made it the servant of his needs and wishes. Similar instances are many, but we will not prolong this.  Man, as it were, takes the sword out of nature's hand and with it for his scepter of authority dominates nature itself.  Nature is without the crown of human faculties and attributes.  Man possesses conscious intelligence and reflection; nature does not.  This is an established fundamental among philosophers.  Man is endowed with volition and memory; nature has neither.  Man can seek out the mysteries latent in nature, whereas nature is not conscious of her own hidden phenomena.  Man is progressive; nature is stationary, without the power of progression or retrogression.  Man is endowed with ideal virtues - for example, intellection, volition, faith, confession and acknowledgment of God - while nature is devoid of all these.  The ideal faculties of man, including the capacity for scientific acquisition, are beyond nature's ken.  These are powers whereby man is differentiated and distinguished from all other forms of life.  This is the bestowal of divine idealism, the crown adorning human heads. Notwithstanding the gift of this supernatural power, it is most amazing that materialists still consider themselves within the bonds and captivity of nature.  The truth is that God has endowed man with virtues, powers and ideal faculties of which nature is entirely bereft and by which man is elevated, distinguished and superior.  We must thank God for these bestowals, for these powers He has given us, for this crown He has placed upon our heads.
     How shall we utilize these gifts and expend these bounties?  By directing our efforts toward the unification of the human race.  We must use these powers in establishing the oneness of the world of humanity, appreciate these virtues by accomplishing the unity of whites and blacks, devote this divine intelligence to the perfecting of amity and accord among all branches of the human family so that under the protection and providence of God the East and West may hold each other's hands and become as lovers.  Then will mankind be as one nation, one race and kind - as waves of one ocean. Although these waves may differ in form and shape, they are waves of the same sea.  Flowers may be variegated in colors, but they are all flowers of one garden.  Trees differ though they grow in the same orchard.  All are nourished and quickened into life by the bounty of the same rain, all grow and develop by the heat and light of the one sun, all are refreshed and exhilarated by the same breeze that they may bring forth varied fruits.  This is according to the creative wisdom.  If all trees bore the same kind of fruit, it would cease to be delicious.  In their never-ending variety man finds enjoyment instead of monotony.
     And now as I look into your faces, I am reminded of trees varying in color and form but all bearing luscious and delectable fruits, fragrant and delightful to the inner and outer senses.  The radiance and spirituality of this meeting is through the favor of God.  Our hearts are uplifted in thankfulness to Him.  Praise be to God!  You are living upon the great continent of the West, enjoying the perfect liberty, security and peace of this just government.  There is no cause for sorrow or unhappiness anywhere; every means of happiness and enjoyment is about you, for in this human world there is no greater blessing than liberty.  You do not know.  I, who for forty years have been a prisoner, do know.  I do know the value and blessing of liberty.  For you have been and are now living in freedom, and you have no fear of anybody.  Is there a greater blessing than this?  Freedom!  Liberty!  Security!  These are the great bestowals of God.  Therefore, praise ye God!  I will now pray in your behalf.
 (`Abdu'l-Baha:  Promulgation of Universal Peace, Pages: 49-52)

Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons -- April 23, 1912
1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D.C.
(Notes by Joseph H. Hannen)

      Today I have been speaking from dawn until now, yet because of love, fellowship and desire to be with you, I have come here to speak again briefly.  Within the last few days a terrible event has happened in the world, an event saddening to every heart and grieving every spirit.  I refer to the Titanic disaster, in which many of our fellow human beings were drowned, a number of beautiful souls passed beyond this earthly life.  Although such an event is indeed regrettable, we must realize that everything which happens is due to some wisdom and that nothing happens without a reason. Therein is a mystery; but whatever the reason and mystery, it was a very sad occurrence, one which brought tears to many eyes and distress to many souls.  I was greatly affected by this disaster.  Some of those who were lost voyaged on the Cedric with us as far as Naples and afterward sailed upon the other ship.  When I think of them, I am very sad indeed.  But when I consider this calamity in another aspect, I am consoled by the realization that the worlds of God are infinite; that though they were deprived of this existence, they have other opportunities in the life beyond, even as Christ has said, "In my Father's house are many mansions."  They were called away from the temporary and transferred to the eternal; they abandoned this material existence and entered the portals of the spiritual world.  Foregoing the pleasures and comforts of the earthly, they now partake of a joy and happiness far more abiding and real, for they have hastened to the Kingdom of God.  The mercy of God is infinite, and it is our duty to remember these departed souls in our prayers and supplications that they may draw nearer and nearer to the Source itself.
     These human conditions may be likened to the matrix [womb] of the mother from which a child is to be born into the spacious outer world.  At first the infant finds it very difficult to reconcile itself to its new existence.  It cries as if not wishing to be separated from its narrow abode and imagining that life is restricted to that limited space.  It is reluctant to leave its home, but nature forces it into this world.  Having come into its new conditions, it finds that it has passed from darkness into a sphere of radiance; from gloomy and restricted surroundings it has been transferred to a spacious and delightful environment.  Its nourishment was the blood of the mother; now it finds delicious food to enjoy.  Its new life is filled with brightness and beauty; it looks with wonder and delight upon the mountains, meadows and fields of green, the rivers and fountains, the wonderful stars; it breathes the life-quickening atmosphere; and then it praises God for its release from the confinement of its former condition and attainment to the freedom of a new realm. This analogy expresses the relation of the temporal world to the life hereafter - the transition of the soul of man from darkness and uncertainty to the light and reality of the eternal Kingdom.  At first it is very difficult to welcome death, but after attaining its new condition the soul is grateful, for it has been released from the bondage of the limited to enjoy the liberties of the unlimited.  It has been freed from a world of sorrow, grief and trials to live in a world of unending bliss and joy.  The phenomenal and physical have been abandoned in order that it may attain the opportunities of the ideal and spiritual.  Therefore, the souls of those who have passed away from earth and completed their span of mortal pilgrimage in the Titanic disaster have hastened to a world superior to this.  They have soared away from these conditions of darkness and dim vision into the realm of light.  These are the only considerations which can comfort and console those whom they have left behind.
     Furthermore, these events have deeper reasons.  Their object and purpose is to teach man certain lessons.  We are living in a day of reliance upon material conditions.  Men imagine that the great size and strength of a ship, the perfection of machinery or the skill of a navigator will ensure safety, but these disasters sometimes take place that men may know that God is the real Protector.  If it be the will of God to protect man, a little ship may escape destruction, whereas the greatest and most perfectly constructed vessel with the best and most skillful navigator may not survive a danger such as was present on the ocean.  The purpose is that the people of the world may turn to God, the One Protector; that human souls may rely upon His preservation and know that He is the real safety. These events happen in order that man's faith may be increased and strengthened.  Therefore, although we feel sad and disheartened, we must supplicate God to turn our hearts to the Kingdom and pray for these departed souls with faith in His infinite mercy so that, although they have been deprived of this earthly life, they may enjoy a new existence in the supreme mansions of the Heavenly Father.
     Let no one imagine that these words imply that man should not be thorough and careful in his undertakings.  God has endowed man with intelligence so that he may safeguard and protect himself. Therefore, he must provide and surround himself with all that scientific skill can produce.  He must be deliberate, thoughtful and thorough in his purposes, build the best ship and provide the most experienced captain; yet, withal, let him rely upon God and consider God as the one Keeper.  If God protects, nothing can imperil man's safety; and if it be not His will to safeguard, no amount of preparation and precaution will avail.

 (`Abdu'l-Baha:  Promulgation of Universal Peace, Pages: 46-48)
    "Verily, I say unto thee, every soul which ariseth today to guide others to the path of safety and infuse in them the Spirit of Life, the Holy Spirit will inspire that soul with evidences, proofs and facts and the lights will shine upon it from the Kingdom of God.  Do not forget what I have conveyed unto thee from the breath of the Spirit.  Verily, it is the shining morning and the rosy dawn which will impart unto thee the lights, reveal the mysteries and make thee competent in science, and through it the pictures of the Supreme World will be printed in thy heart and the facts of the secrets of the Kingdom of God will shine before thee."        (`Abdu'l-Baha: Baha'i World Faith, Page: 369)

Source of inspiration: The Revelation of Bahá'u'lláh
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